jueves, 20 de diciembre de 2012

Aurelio Arteta

 
 
 
Aurelio Bibiano de Arteta y Errasti (Bilbao, 2 de diciembre de 1879- México, 10 de noviembre de 1940)
 Nació en la bilbaína calle Askao, hijo de Eusebio Arteta y labrador, de profesión ferroviario, y de Petra Errasti y Zabala.
Comenzó sus estudios en la Escuela de Artes y Oficios de Bilbao. En 1894 toda la familia se trasladó a Valladolid. Posteriormente viajó a Madrid, estudiando en la Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando. No queriendo ser una carga para su familia, Arteta simultaneó sus estudios con los más diversos trabajos, tales como pintor de brocha gorda, ilustrador, dibujante de bordados, litógrafo e incluso como aplaudidor en teatros.



En 1902 obtuvo una beca de la Diputación vizcaína, junto con Ángel Larroque, Echevarría, Nemesio Mogrobejo y Quintín de Torre. La beca le fue concedida por la obra Accidente de trabajo en una fábrica de Vizcaya. Este hecho le permitió viajar a París, donde completó su formación. En la capital francesa recibió la influencia de las revisiones de la pintura impresionista a través de Gauguin y Toulouse-Lautrec. Un posterior viaje a Italia permitió a Arteta conocer el Renacimiento italiano, y más específicamente, con la pintura mural.
 
 En 1906 se estableció en Bilbao, abriendo estudio. Alternó la labor puramente pictórica con el diseño de carteles y labores litográficas. Realizó su primera exposición en la bilbaína galería Delclaux.
En 1911 fundó, en compañía de otros insignes artistas la "Asociación de Artistas Vascos". Con ocasión de la nueva decoración de la sede de la Sociedad Bilbaína, Arteta realizó una de sus obras más recordadas, la conocida como Eva arratiana, en 1921.
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En 1921 comenzó en los frescos del Banco de Bilbao, en Madrid. En 1924 fue nombrado primer director del recién creado Museo de Arte Moderno de Bilbao. Esta labor no estuvo exenta de polémica ya que el ayuntamiento de Bilbao censuró a Arteta las adquisiciones realizadas. La dimisión de Arteta provocó una oleada de apoyos de intelectuales de toda España, que acabó por convertirse en una crítica a la política de la dictadura de Primo de Rivera desde el campo del arte.
En 1930 recibió el Premio Nacional de Pintura.
 
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El inicio del conflicto sorprendió al pintor en su domicilio madrileño. El primer día del mes de diciembre del año 36 sale hacia Valencia en compañía de entre otros, Gutiérrez Solana. En esa ciudad realizó un cartel de colaboración con el gobierno de Euzkadi. De Valencia se trasladó a Barcelona, primero, para pasar luego definitivamente a Francia. Allí realizó un periplo por varias ciudades (Biarritz, Burdeos), librándose de los habituales campos de refugiados. Finalmente, y a bordo del vapor Sinaia se trasladó a México. Una de sus últimas obras fue la decoración del comedor de la residencia de Indalecio Prieto en la capital mexicana.

Image 

El 10 de noviembre de 1940 falleció a causa de un accidente de tranvía cuando se dirigía, en compañía de su esposa a Coyoacán. Según el testimonio posterior de Indalecio Prieto, Arteta y su mujer se dirigían a pasar una temporada en el campo, para reponerse de la noticia recibida del fusilamiento el día anterior de Julián Zugazagoitia.
 
Image 
 
 
Su pintura, un tanto idealizada, y teñida de una gran melancolía, cultiva con preferencia el tema vasco, tanto el eminentemente rural como la transformación de esa sociedad a la industrialización, con paisajes urbanos centrados en el entorno de la ría del Nervión. El crítico Juan de la Encina dijo de él, en relación al cuadro Pescadores, enviado por Arteta a la exposición de la Asociación de Artistas Vascos, realizada en Madrid en 1916: «En tiempos en que el charlatanismo y la vanidad son y han sido haciendas en explotación, por una parte, no podemos por menos de aplaudir el recogimiento de Arteta; pero por otra parte, lamentamos que artista de tanto talento huya temeroso de darse al público dictamen». También se dedicó a la ilustración de libros, como en el caso de la obra Divagaciones de un transeunte de Alejandro de la Sota.
 Image
 
 
 
Entre los años 1917 y 1923 Arteta realizó varios paisajes urbanos, en los que la influencia de Lautrec es patente. La inclinación realista del pintor le hizo elegir en numerosas ocasiones barrios obreros de ese Bilbao industrial, o rincones deprimidos. Obras como El puente de Burceña, Barrio obrero o La calle son buenos ejemplos de ese realismo social de Arteta que tuvo como escenario la ciudad de Bilbao.
También abundan los lienzos en los que Arteta se limitó a reflejar rincones más burgueses de la ciudad, como El Campo Volantín desde mi estudio.
 Image

Según la crítica moderna. la pintura de Arteta, entre épica, melancólica y silenciosa refleja el paso y el tránsito de una sociedad agrícola a una industrial, de una sociedad rural a una sociedad urbana, el comienzo de la construcción del Gran Bilbao como espacio urbano señorial y proletario.
Con ocasión del centenario de su nacimiento, en 1979, el Banco de Bilbao celebró una doble exposición en el Museo de Bellas Artes de Bilbao y en la sala de exposiciones de la propia entidad bancaria. Se consiguieron reunir 70 obras de primera magnitud, a las que acompañaron textos de entre otros, Manuel Llano, Edorta Kortadi, Kosme Barañano e Indalecio Prieto.
 Image
 
 Tras la bonanza económica experimentada por la burguesía bilbaína a caballo de la Primera guerra mundial, los accionistas del Banco de Bilbao decidieron establecer en Madrid una nueva sede. En 1919 se convocó un concurso de proyectos para la construcción del nuevo edificio, ganándolo el arquitecto Ricardo Bastida. Él mismo se hizo cargo del desarrollo de las obras, que comenzaron en 1920, concluyéndose tres años. Las irregularidades que presentaba el solar obligó al arquitecto a disponer dos edificios que quedarían unidos por una rotonda cubierta, mientras que la fachada principal se dispuso con columnas, capiteles y entablamentos de órdenes clásicos gigantes, estética que se había convertido en la habitual en la construcción de edificios bancarios. Se eligió a Quintín de Torre para la elaboración de la decoración escultórica y a Higinio de Basterra para la realización de las dos cuádrigas que coronan el edificio.
 Image

En 1921 Arteta recibió el encargo más importante de su carrera profesional, cuando le fue encomendada la decoración del vestíbulo.
Arteta preparó concienzudamente la realización de las pinturas, y solicitó el asesoramiento de Manuel Losada, quién le asesoró sobre aspectos técnicos y materiales. También viajó a Italia para asesorarse sobre los materiales a emplear y para conocer la obre de los maestros antiguos. A modo de experimento realizó una pequeña obra: En la romería (actualmente en el Museo de Bellas Artes de Bilbao), para la casa que Bastida tenía en la localidad de Ondárroa, que le ayudó a familiarizarse con la exigente técnica del «buon fresco».
 Image

 
 

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